Recently Mitali Perkins listed a few books about Syria on her blog, Mitali's Fire Escape (a wonderful resource!): http://www.mitaliblog.com/2013/08/childrens-books-for-and-about-syrian.html. I was pleased to find Paula Jolin's In the Name of God in our library collection and was able to order A Hand Full of Stars by Rafik Schami from another library. I look forward to reading both.
Unfortunately, I'm not surprised that there are very few books about Syria. I'd like to find more books about this region, so if you know of any, please add them in the comments.
I checked the International Children's Digital Library and found three books, but they are in Arabic. They do have other books on the Middle East though.
Perkins also linked to the Arab Children's Literature Regional Programme, which gives a brief overview of libraries, authors, and illustrators in Syria. Where do Syrian children read (when not torn apart by civil war)? This site is worth knowing about, and gives overviews of other countries in the region who many of us (me) don't know much about.
If I find more resources, I'll add them here too. Thanks for any suggestions!